Mining

Sea Sands

RECLAMATION is a creation of artificial or man made of previous sea shore OR an island or archipelago (group of islands) that has been constructed by people rather than formed by natural means.

METHODS OF CREATION:

  • Expanding existing islets.
  • Construction on existing reefs.
  • Amalgamating several natural islets into a bigger island.
  • Construction on sea bed.
  • Land Reclamation.
  • Oil Platforms.

REASONS OF CONSTRUCTION:

  • urban development (special structures)
  • industry
  • waste handling
  • infrastructure (ports and airports)
  • extended runways
  • recreation
  • mining of natural resources
  • oil drills and exploration platforms.
  • tidal or wind energy generation.
  • recreational structures like hotels or water parks.

Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea treaty (UNCLOS), artificial islands are not considered

harbour works and are under the jurisdiction of the nearest coastal state if within 200 nautical miles (370 km) .

Artificial islands are not considered islands for purposes of having their own territorial waters or exclusive economic

zones, and only the coastal state may authorize their construction.

However, on the high seas beyond national jurisdiction, any “state” may construct artificial islands .